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Promoting Fair Trade Practices in Argan Oil Cooperatives


Argan oil has become an increasingly popular skin care and culinary product worldwide in recent years due to its numerous health benefits. However, for the women who have traditionally harvested argan nuts and produced argan oil in Morocco and other parts of North Africa, the growing commercial demand has not always translated into economic empowerment. Today, cooperatives are playing an important role in promoting fair trade practices that benefit local producers while sustaining the argan forests and communities that have cared for them for centuries.

As both a consumer and advocate for ethical and sustainable trade, I believe it is important to support brands and cooperatives that uplift smallholder farmers and artisans through fair wages and investments in social programs. By choosing cooperatives that are certified fair trade, we vote with our purchasing power to reward practices that share economic benefits equitably and reinvest in communities. In this article, I will explore the argan oil industry in Morocco and how certain cooperatives are working to promote fair wages, women’s empowerment, environmental conservation, and continued cultural traditions through a fair trade model.

The Unique Ecosystem of Argan Forests

Stretching across coastal areas of Morocco and parts of Western Sahara, the arid argan forest ecosystem occupies around 800,000 hectares and is unique for its ability to withstand drought conditions. Home to the endemic argan tree, these scrublands remain the sole habitat for this culturally and economically significant species. Argan trees can live for over 200 years and are unusually drought-tolerant due to their deep root systems and small, tough evergreen leaves.

For centuries, the Berber women of Souss-Massa in southwestern Morocco have harvested argan nuts and practiced traditional methods of oil extraction. In the summer months when the nuts ripen, women and children spend weeks collecting nuts that have fallen to the ground. Nuts are then dried, shelled by hand, and roasted before being crushed between stone grinders to produce argan oil. This labor-intensive process transforms rich nuts into a golden elixir prized for its culinary and cosmetic properties.

The argan forests not only provide nuts for oil production but also fodder for goats and firewood for local communities. Their leaf litter enriching the thin soils has enabled farming of Mediterranean crops in an otherwise arid climate. However, as global demand has grown, threats including overgrazing, firewood collection, and clearing of forests for agriculture now endanger this fragile ecosystem unless sustainable practices are implemented.

Fair Trade Cooperatives Uplift Women and Conservation

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, as argan oil gained mainstream popularity abroad, commercial buyers started sourcing directly from growers, often paying very low prices. Many women producers were still using traditional grinding stones rather than electric machines. While a few middlemen and entrepreneurs profited, widespread poverty persisted in rural areas.

In response, fair trade cooperatives emerged with the goal of empowering women economically while promoting environmental protection. By aggregating members’ production under fair trade certification standards, cooperatives negotiate higher stable prices from buyers and fairer terms of trade. They provide infrastructure like oil presses to improve efficiency and quality. Profits are reinvested in health, education, and agroforestry programs benefitting thousands of families.

One of the pioneers in this model is the Souss-Massa women’s cooperative PAFAO, founded in 1998. With over 46,000 members across the region, PAFAO has raised living standards through increased oil incomes, vocational training, and interest-free loans for income-generating activities. Their sustainability practices such as pruning and replanting trees have enabled argan forests to regrow over 50%. Al Amana, another cooperative, has supported over 800 women members via equipment, nurseries and forest restoration work since 2002.

Cooperatives also empower women to participate directly in global trade. They facilitate organic certification and fair trade audits, market argan oil products themselves through online stores and ethical retailers, and promote the sustainable heritage industry internationally. For example, women of the Taouirt cooperative travel abroad to share their culture, oil craft and advocacy at world fairs. In these ways, fair trade ensures the economic and social benefits of argan oil production stay rooted in rural communities.

Nutritional Benefits of Argan Oil

Of course, there would be little incentive to conserve argan forests without ongoing demand for this superfood oil. The nutritional composition of argan oil is remarkable considering its extraction requires no chemical processing. Retaining aromatic compounds and antioxidants from the nuts, it contains over 80% monounsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid, which is also a primary compound in olive oil.

Argan oil is exceptionally rich in vitamin E (400-600 mg/kg) many times higher than other plant oils. This fat-soluble antioxidant has anti-inflammatory and skin-protecting qualities. Studies show argan oil promotes cardiovascular health by reducing LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. It has also demonstrated positive effects on diabetes management and wound healing. Rubbed onto skin and hair, argan oil moisturizes, soothes, and protects from sun damage thanks to its vitamin E content as well as fatty acid profile resembling sebum, the skin’s natural oils.

Cooperatives like these empower Berber women while sustaining argan forests for future generations. The premium prices and social development programs they enable have made fair trade an engine for progress. Yet continuing challenges include younger generations moving to cities, lack of rain limiting crop yields, and potential over-reliance on international markets. Cooperatives must adapt and diversify by cultivating new markets, value-added products, and sustainable farming to leave rural communities prosperous in the long run.

Promoting Fair Trade Practices in Argan Oil Cooperatives
Promoting Fair Trade Practices in Argan Oil Cooperatives

Linking Conservation to Economic Prosperity

To fortify the fair trade system and create a virtuous cycle of conservation, cooperatives are naturally incorporating agroforestry and environmental initiatives. For instance, most purchase argan seeds directly from growers to distribute seedlings and aid forest replanting. Pruning encourages more productive growth patterns and protects trees from fire risks. Restoration helps regenerate degraded lands and extend the range of argan again.

Additionally, some cooperatives operate tree nurseries and demonstration farms to educate members. Techniques like intercropping argan and oleocultures like almonds/carob create diverse income streams and maximize land usage. Contour planting on slopes counters erosion. These agroecological practices boost productivity while preserving precious water resources. Forest dependent communities become invested in long-term sustainability.

Cooperatives and environmental groups partner to establish protected areas within argan forests as well. This safeguards key habitats, genetic diversity, and ecosystem services into the future. For example, Tighacht Argan Biosphere Reserve was created through PAFAO’s advocacy to research and showcase sustainable management practices. Visitor centers profile cooperative activities and traditional Berber culture for education tourism.

Not only does ecosystem restoration deliver environmental co-benefits, it has social impacts too. Reforestation crews provide seasonal jobs while regenerating landscapes. Scholarships enable education that creates next generation stewards. Integrating livelihoods with nature stewardship shows how economic prosperity and environmental protection can reinforce each other for the long haul. Going beyond philanthropy, cooperatives make sure conservation pays tangible dividends that locals can see and feel.

The Artisanal Process of Producing Argan Oil

There remains something deeply artisanal about how cooperatives continue harvesting and processing argan nuts by hand. And fortunately, mechanization has not diminished the cultural traditions and craftsmanship integral to production. In fact, cooperatives preserve these living heritages that also differentiate their premium argan oil in global markets.

Each summer, women and children still collect the reddish-brown argan fruits that have fallen naturally to the ground. They tramp through forests gleaning every last windfall from thickets and understory. Back home, fruits must dry fully in the sun before descaling, a meticulous process of cracking open each shell by hand to reveal the golden kernel inside.

Nuts are then roasted in wide shallow pans over charcoal embers to intensify flavors and help break down cell walls during pressing. Modern oil mills now employ screw-type presses instead of the traditional stone grinders for more efficiency and output. But the antique grindstones are kept polished and on display—physical symbols of history and identity.

Once a batch of roasted nuts is crushed, the resulting paste is carefully kneaded and blended by women scooping with wooden paddles before pressing. This time-consuming yet therapeutic massage action thoroughly breaks down nut solids to fully extract precious oil within each tiny kernel. The first golden-huedExtraction then takes place in hydraulic oil presses to separate liquid from solids.

The remaining almond-like argan cake can be ground as a nutritious flour, while the spent mash becomes coveted livestock fodder. As for the richly hued argan oil, it undergoes no further processing or refining from this point. Its terroir intensity, nutritional density, and aromatic properties are intentionally preserved in their raw natural state to serve culinary and skin care applications.

Every phase remains artisanal – a caring, skilled human touch shapes each batch from forest to final product. While efficiency has increased, cooperatives sustain timeless traditions as integral to the soul of this extraordinary superfood oil. They share their stories worldwide, underscoring how cultural traditions and business can complement each other for community empowerment and conservation for generations to come. Visitors to


FAQ 1: How are argan cooperatives organized?

Most cooperatives have a democratically elected board of directors composed of member producers. They set policies, oversee activities and ensure financial transparency. A general manager handles day-to-day operations with support staff. Members must reside in the cooperative zone and adhere to bylaws regarding production standards, quality control and fair trade requirements. Profits from sales are distributed based on each member’s volume of nuts/oil delivered. Some income also supports collective projects like infrastructure, training programs and forest rehabilitation work to benefit the entire community.

FAQ 2: What quality standards do cooperatives enforce?

Cooperatives maintain high quality standards at each step from harvest to final product. All argan nuts must come from designated forest areas and be properly dried, de-shelled and cleaned before roasting. Roasting temperatures and durations are carefully controlled. Oil is only extracted via regulated screw press machines and storage containers are thoroughly cleaned. Samples undergo laboratory analyses for moisture, free acidity levels and sensory properties to ensure optimal nutritional value, taste and shelf stability. Strict organic certification and fair trade audits verify social welfare and sustainability practices are upheld throughout the supply chain.

FAQ 3: How do cooperatives market argan oil?

Several cooperatives market finished oil and value-added products directly through websites, online retailers and distributor partners in Europe and North America. They promote health benefits of cold-pressed culinary and cosmetic grades. Participation in regional trade fairs and expositions to share traditions and forge new commercial relationships has also proven effective. Brand ambassadors travel internationally to facilitate wholesale orders, provide sampling experiences and foster ties with importers/retailers interested in sustainably-sourced niche goods. Cooperatives seek high-exposure placements in natural grocery chains and cosmetic retailers to expand brand visibility and boost rural incomes.

FAQ 4: What impact have cooperatives made so far?

Cooperatives have empowered over 50,000 women across Morocco through skills training, access to equipment and collective bargaining for stable prices over 20 years. This has doubled household incomes on average and lifted many families out of poverty. Environmental efforts initiated by cooperatives have enabled regrowth of argan forests across 50,000+ hectares. Quality planting stock distributed and awareness campaigns have encouraged communities to actively protect trees from threats like overgrazing. Cooperatives also invest 12-15% of annual profits in village development like water systems, schools and healthcare facilities benefitting broader local populations.

FAQ 5: How do cooperatives support future growth?

To remain economically viable, cooperatives are diversifying income streams through new value-added products. This includes specialty cosmetics, culinary blends, flavored infused oils and nut butters requiring additional processing facilities. Some pursue organic certification for argan almonds to market globally. Partnerships with conservation non-profits facilitate research exploring crop adaptation to climate shifts. Cooperatives establish field schools teaching climate-smart agroforestry practices and cultivate alternative native species like carob and olives. Scholarships target youth interested in sustainable management careers. Cooperatives also export processing/production know-how to communities establishing similar operations elsewhere.

FAQ 6: What challenges do cooperatives still face?

Key challenges include climate shifts limiting rain-fed crop yields, younger generations leaving rural areas in search of employment opportunities, and potential overdependency on export market demands vulnerable to economic downturns. Cooperatives address these through: expanding value-added segments including tourism to maintain rural livelihood viability; enabling higher-yielding planting stocks and drip irrigation techniques to cope with drought; bolstering education/training opportunities for youth career pathways in sustainability fields; diversifying buyers globally and promoting local consumption of argan products as a cultural heritage. Secure land tenure rights and protected areas also need strengthening to safeguard forests and communities dependent on them for generations ahead.


The argan oil cooperatives demonstrate how traditional economies can modernize through ethical trade principles to benefit small-scale producers and the environment in tandem. By fostering women’s empowerment, sustainable production practices and community reinvestment, cooperatives champion fair trade as an engine of inclusive rural development. Their efforts uplift indigenous knowledge and cultural assets while accessing global markets on equitable terms. Cooperatives play a vital long-term role facilitating participation of smallholders in worldwide wellness/gourmet trends driving demand, so marginalized communities may share fairly in ensuing prosperity. With continued innovation and partnerships, cooperatives envisage self-sufficient cooperating communities thriving alongside restored argan forests for decades to come.




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