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Challenges and Opportunities for Argan Oil Cooperative Members


Argan oil cooperative farming is an important part of the culture and economy in southern Morocco. However, members of these cooperatives often face difficulties both in production and marketing of their argan oil. In this article, I will discuss some of the key challenges cooperative members deal with on a regular basis and explore possible opportunities to overcome these challenges. My goal is to have an insightful yet sensitive discussion that highlights both the difficulties as well as hope for a brighter future.

Processing and Production Challenges

One of the major challenges for argan oil cooperative members is the labor intensive nature of oil production from argan nuts. The entire process from collecting the nuts from trees, cracking them open, breaking the shells to extract the kernels, and grinding the kernels to extract the argan oil is very time consuming and physically demanding work. Typically this work is done manually using basic tools like scissors, knives, grindstones etc. This manual production process results in low yields of oil and impacts the incomes of cooperative members.

To address this challenge, some cooperatives have started experimenting with mechanical devices to assist with certain production steps. For example, some cooperatives have tried using manually operated machines for cracking open argan nuts and breaking the shells. While these machines have increased production efficiency to some extent, they are still not very effective and often break down easily due to low quality construction materials and lack of regular maintenance in remote villages. Most cooperative members cannot afford to purchase higher quality electric powered machines due to financial constraints.

Another challenge related to production is the variable quality and inconsistent composition of argan oil extracted manually. Factors like inadequate drying of kernels prior to pressing, insufficient grinding of kernels, improper filtration techniques etc can affect the clarity, color and nutrient content of the final oil. This makes it difficult for cooperatives to market their oil as a premium product. Some quality control and training on improved production methods could help resolve this issue.

Storage and Packaging Issues

With manually extracted oil in large quantities, proper storage becomes a concern for many cooperatives. Argan oil starts oxidizing and losing its nutrient value once extracted if not stored correctly. Many cooperatives lack facilities for storing oil in air-tight containers and cool, dark places away from heat and light. This impacts the shelf life and quality of their oil negatively.

Additionally, lack of standardized packaging is also an area which needs focus. Most cooperatives currently package oil in basic plastic or glass bottles without labels providing important details like production batch, best before date, nutrition information etc. Attractive, branded packaging compliant with international food safety standards could increase marketability for cooperative produced oil. However, such packaging requires investment which is challenging for cash-strapped cooperatives.

Marketing and Sales Barriers

One of the biggest challenges facing argan oil cooperatives globally is lack of access to profitable markets and competitive pricing for their products. Despite growing international demand, most cooperatives struggle to reach customers worldwide and compete with mass produced argan oil from larger companies. Restricted by limited budgets, transportation facilities and language barriers, cooperatives find it difficult promoting and selling oil outside their local regions.

Even within Morocco, cooperatives have to compete with cheaper substitutes like olive and other vegetable oils which are readily available in urban areas. With little brand recognition, cooperatives are not able to charge premium prices to match the nutrient value of traditionally produced argan oil. Many are still primarily dependent on local women who visit cooperative collection centers to purchase small quantities of oil for personal use.

As a result, cooperative members often receive low financial returns from their labor intensive work. This acts as a deterrent for some women to continue involvement in cooperative production. With limited earnings, it is also difficult for cooperatives to expand or invest in modernization activities for long term growth and sustainability. Accessing export markets, securing bulk orders and creating brand value are significant challenges in this regard.

Socio-economic Vulnerabilities

It is important to recognize that argan oil cooperative members come from rural, traditionally female dominated communities with limited alternative livelihood options and socio-economic vulnerabilities. Most women play dual roles as homemakers and income generators through cooperative work, facing challenges like lack of education, health issues, financial dependence and social restrictions. Their work producing and selling argan oil becomes even more significant in such a context.

However, owing to factors described earlier like fluctuating incomes, lack of stable markets and pressures of domestic responsibilities, many women find it difficult fully committing their time and efforts towards cooperatives. This creates uncertainties around consistent product supply. At the same time, limited social mobility and traditional gender roles also mean cooperatives cannot easily recruit younger educated members with technical or business skills for leadership and progressive change.

Opportunities for Growth and Development

While the challenges faced by argan oil cooperatives seem extensive, there are also opportunities which if leveraged properly could help transform living standards for member communities over the long run. Here are some potential areas of focus:

Mechanization and Productivity Improvements

Investing in simple mechanized solutions customized for local conditions could help increase oil yields, enhance quality control and reduce drudgery for cooperative members. Pilot initiatives trialling multifunctional machines for processing nuts as well as techniques like solar drying of kernels show promise. Accessing government or donor funds for such solutions needs exploring.

Training and Capacity Building

Regular training on improved production, quality standardization, financial management, marketing strategies etc could empower cooperative leaders and members with skills for sustainable community development. Partnerships with NGOs, agricultural universities and cooperative support organizations could facilitate this.

Cooperative Networking and Branding

Forming regional or national level cooperative federations/unions could increase bargaining power for securing bulk supply orders, negotiating transportation, pursuing collective marketing campaigns etc. Establishing an identifiable cooperative brand identity centered around health, traditions as well as women empowerment could boost demand and pricing for argan oil worldwide.

Adopting Food Safety Certifications

Obtaining certifications confirming compliance to global organic, fair trade or halal standards through third party audits can enhance export appeal of cooperative oil. This requires establishing standardized production protocols, record keeping, infrastructure upgrades supported by technical experts initially.

Leveraging E-commerce Platforms

Selling on reputed online cooperative marketing portals or through social media promotion by cooperative brand ambassadors could help members access a wider international health-conscious customer base interested in sustainably sourced niche ingredients. This needs investments in packaging solutions and digital training support.

Linking with Hospitality Sector

Partnering with upmarket tour operators, luxury resorts and restaurants in Morocco and overseas supplying branded argan oil products as amenities could generate high volume repeat orders for cooperatives. Proactively building such B2B connections would require overseas travel and communication abilities presently lacking.

Promoting Socio-economic Development

Initiatives empowering cooperative members through financial inclusion, subsidized healthcare, women-run community services like nurseries, skill training centers can boost welfare and encourage more women/youth joining cooperatives for sustainable livelihoods. Income diversification is key.

Strategic policy level support from government institutions and commitment from private partners will certainly be a prerequisite to realize many of these opportunities over the long term. But the potential rewards are immense – both economically through increased incomes and socially through community uplift. If sensitively planned and community led, a new future focused on argan oil cooperative development holds promise for the families and regions involved.

Challenges and Opportunities for Argan Oil Cooperative Members
Challenges and Opportunities for Argan Oil Cooperative Members

Customer Acquisition Strategies

Once the production and operational issues are addressed, targeted customer acquisition will be key to scaling up marketing efforts for argan oil cooperatives. Here are some approaches which could be evaluated:

Leverage Digital Advertising and Influencer Marketing

Strategic use of search, display advertising and working with health/beauty bloggers reviewing cooperative oil products could boost online visibility and sales demand cost-effectively. Social platforms allow geo-targeting potential international buyers.

Host Trade Show/Expo Participation

Exhibiting at prominent natural products, organic living or women’s expos overseas supported through government grants provides a platform to showcase the cooperative brand story, engage health conscious communities and possibly find bulk buyers.

Partner with Retail Stores and E-retailers

Negotiating shelf space deals with health food stores, ethnic grocery chains as well as tying up with popular vitamin/cosmetic e-commerce sites brings cooperative oil within easy reach of niche customer segments across regions. Joint promotion campaigns can be planned.

Tie-ups with Complementary Brands

Exploring collaboration opportunities with popular organic beauty/skincare labels promoting argan oil as a star ingredient opens doors to new customer audiences as well as potential private label production orders for cooperatives.

Host Experiential Tourism Programs

Designing interactive tours for international visitors covering argan groves, production experience, women artisan insights provides engagement beyond transactional sales. Good exposure and advocacy potential if packaged attractively.

Run Referral Incentive Programs

Encouraging loyal customers to personally recommend cooperative oil products to friends/family through vouchers or other motivation unlocks word-of-mouth, the strongest sales driver organically over time with minimum marketing spend.

Adopting an integrated customer-centric strategy targeting both online and offline channels tailored to niche buyer personas seems most suitable given resource constraints faced by the cooperatives currently. Flexibility to measure and refine approaches periodically will also be crucial. Growing sales sustainably relies heavily on consistent customer delight and retention.


FAQ 1: What are the benefits of joining an argan oil cooperative?

Some key benefits of joining an argan oil cooperative include:

  • Income generation opportunities for women through the sale of argan oil which they produce. This provides economic empowerment.
  • Access to shared infrastructure like oil processing equipment, which individual farmers may not be able to afford otherwise. This improves efficiency.
  • Cooperatives facilitate bulk sales of oil which can fetch better prices than individual sales. This increases farmer profits.
  • Collective branding and promotion under the cooperative helps farmers access wider domestic and international markets. This expands sales opportunities.
  • Cooperatives organize training programs to help farmers learn improved production techniques to boost yields and quality. This leads to skills and capacity building over time.
  • Social benefits like community solidarity and reduced isolation in remote areas through regular interaction within the cooperative network.

FAQ 2: How is argan oil produced traditionally by cooperatives?

Traditionally, argan oil production within cooperatives follows these main steps:

  • Argan fruits are collected from trees once they fall on the ground during harvesting season between May to August.
  • The fruits are dried in the sun to facilitate cracking of the outer shells protecting the nuts inside.
  • The dried fruit shells are then cracked manually using stones or machines to extract the argan nuts.
  • The nuts are roasted to facilitate cracking of the inner shells housing the kernels.
  • Kernels are extracted and ground manually using traditional stone grinders to produce the precious argan oil.
  • The ground paste is kneaded and pressed by hand to further extract oil from the residual paste.
  • The crude oil is filtered to remove impurities before packing for sale or consumption.

FAQ 3: What motivated the formation of argan oil cooperatives?

Some key drivers that led to the formation of argan oil cooperatives in Morocco include:

  • Argan forests and oil production provided traditional livelihoods but yields were low due to basic tools and equipment.
  • Individual farmers found it difficult accessing markets and negotiating prices for their small oil volumes.
  • To reduce isolation in remote rural areas and build solidarity among oil producing communities.
  • Facilitate credit access for small farmers otherwise unable to secure loans individually.
  • Promote better utilization of resources through economies of scale in operations like mechanized processing.
  • Enable farmers to benefit more commercially from the growing global demand for argan oil through collective marketing initiatives.

FAQ 4: What government policies support the argan oil cooperatives?

Some notable government policies and programs that support argan oil cooperatives include:

  • Declaring argan forests as protected areas to ensure sustainable production of the argan tree resource base.
  • Providing subsidies for cooperative mechanization efforts to boost oil yields and quality.
  • Organizing training on improved agronomic practices, record keeping and quality standards.
  • Marketing assistance for exports and participation in international trade fairs showcasing Moroccan cooperatives.
  • Simplifying loan applications for cooperatives to access funds for capacity expansion.
  • Recognizing top performing cooperatives through awards to inspire replication of successful models.
  • Collecting oil volumes to maintain reserves addressing supply shortages while supporting farmer prices.

FAQ 5: What challenges do cooperatives face in marketing argan oil internationally?

Some key international marketing hurdles faced by argan oil cooperatives include:

  • Limited budgets restricting overseas promotion through digital and trade show avenues.
  • Language and cultural barriers in targeting customers directly in foreign markets.
  • Lack of well-established brands and inconsistent packaging/labeling impacting appeal.
  • Unable to compete on pricing with mass produced industrial argan oil from big companies.
  • Meeting stringent import regulations and certifications like organic in developed country markets.
  • Logistical challenges in arranging frequent large volume exports amid infrastructure constraints.
  • Capacity gaps in maintaining relationships with global distribution partners and retailers.

FAQ 6: What new opportunities exist for cooperative growth and impact scaling?

New opportunities that could enable cooperatives scale impacts include:

  • Mechanization to boost productivity and market bigger oil volumes sustaining farmer livelihoods.
  • Accessing blended financing from impact investors and aid programs for modernization.
  • Building cooperative federation platforms to collaborate on marketing, sourcing efficiencies.
  • Targeting health-conscious expatriate communities in Morocco offering tourism linked programs.
  • Tapping e-commerce to reach wider online buyers with standardized packaging and storytelling.
  • Partnering progressive local businesses sourcing argan for their products supporting rural livelihoods.
  • Launching collaborative projects with cosmetic brands to promote argan globally as a natural ingredient.


With concerted efforts across domains, argan oil cooperatives can continue empowering rural communities through sustainable livelihoods while also expanding global access to this superfood’s benefits. Pursuing opportunities creatively yet cooperatively holds promise of strengthening the cooperative business model’s overall social impact scope for generations.




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